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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernier_thruster     http://wiki.kerbalspaceprogram.com/wiki/Category:Reaction_Systems_Ltdhttp://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2014-06-15_15.40.51.jpg                               http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2014-06-15_15.40.09.jpg                                http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2014-06-15_15.42.17.jpg                               http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2014-06-15_15.44.40.jpg

Rocketdyne's LR-101 was a small, secondary (or "vernier") engine. Two LR-101s were mounted on the Atlas and Thor missiles (and, later, the Delta launch vehicle, by virtue of its first stage being a modified Thor missile). It was produced in several versions and operated under different conditions, but the LR-101 generally produced about 1,000 pounds of thrust. Later, in its Atlas Space Launch Vehicle configuration, its thrust was downrated as adequate role
Avav814

Pegasus engine

and attitude control could be accomplished at a lower thrust rate and the corresponding lower propellant flowrate meant that more propellant was available to the sustainer engine, in turn producing improved overall launch
F402-image03

F402

vehicle performance. On the Atlas, the two outer booster engines were gimballed; two gimballed engines allowed for yaw, pitch, and roll control. After about two minutes of flight, the boosters were jettisoned, leaving the single center sustainer engine. While this engine was also gimballed, roll control is not possible with only one engine. The primary purpose of the LR-101 vernier engines was to provide roll control after the booster engines had been jettisoned. They also contributed to thrust and, after the sustainer was shut down, powered the Atlas to its final velocity and position.
AMPS Stage 2

AMPS stage

CR-863 -Converted-

CR 863 converted

The LR-101 was a single-start, fixed-thrust engine with an expansion ration of 6:1. In at least some configurations, ignition occurred by means of pyrophoric (hypergolic) fluid which ignites spontaneously in the presence of oxygen. (A former Rocketdyne employee contacted me after I initially put up this page saying that in the July 1956 to July 1957 timeframe, they were ignited "by a sparkler stuck in the throat". The LR-101 was a long-lived engine, so it appears that different versions were ignited via different methods.) Its thrust chamber weighed only about 15 pounds; in its -NA-15 configuration, the mount and bearing assembly added another 27 pounds.

Here is a cut-away diagram of the LR-101 thrust chamber assembly: LR101-NA-1
Imagestrb

turbo jet

Nozzle 01

Vernier

Rockwell 1980 1K LH2 Expander

Rockwell_1980_1K_LH2_Expander

Rockwell 1980 3K LH2 Expander

Rockwell_1980_3K_LH2_Expander

Rockwell-vtol-2

rockwell-vtol-2

SM RCS thruster600

SM_RCS_thruster600

Surveyor-vernier-cutaway

surveyor-vernier-cutaway

Turbofan operation

Turbofan Operation


1000 lb. Thrust

Vectored

Vectored engine


{| class="specs"

|THRUST. . . . . . . . . . . . .  |(NA-13) 669 ± 5% @ sea level, pump fed
(NA-15) 1000 ± 3% @ sea level, pump fed |- |PROPELLANTS . . . . . . . . . .  |Liquid oxygen (MIL-P-25508C) and RP-1* (MIL-R-25576B) |- |O/F WEIGHT RATIO. . . . . . . .  |1.8 ± 0.1 |- |RATED DURATION. . . . . . . . .  |322.5 sec** (ATLAS), 184 sec (THOR) |- |PROPELLANT FEED . . . . . . . .  |Sustainer engine turbopump until cutoff; thereafter they are tank fed |- |THRUST VECTOR CONTROL . . . . .  |Gimbaled thrust chambers ± 75° yaw, -35° and -25° in pitch (ATLAS), ± 47° pitch, +6 and 34° yaw (THOR) |- |CURRENT USE . . . . . . . . . .  |Verniers for ATLAS and THOR missiles |- |STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . . .  |In production. Preliminary design was completed in June 1958 for the LR101-NA-3 |- |SPONSORING AGENCY . . . . . . .  |U. S. Air Force through ATLAS and THOR contracts |}

  • RJ-1 (MIL-F-25558B) has been utilized in the LR101-NA-11 
    • 325 sec for LR101-NA-7 
PERFORMANCE (Sea Level) NA-13 NA-15 Md 1 NA-15 Md 2
Pump
Fed*
Tank
Fed
Pump
Fed
Tank
Fed
Pump
Fed
Tank
Fed
Thrust, lb 1000 830 669 526 913 777
Thrust Coefficient 1.33 1.30 1.247 1.171 1.307 1.281
Specific Impulse, lbf-sec/lbm nominal 207 197 190.5 183.9 205.3 197.6
minimum 200 194
Characteristic Exhaust Velocity, ft/sec 4997 4897 4915 5052 5053 4962
Chamber Pressure, psia 358 302 257 216 337 292
Fuel and Oxidizer Supply Pressure, psia 630 510 509 LOX 390 LOX 646 LOX 543 LOX
448 Fuel 335 Fuel 678 Fuel 543 Fuel
Flow Rates, lb/sec Total 4.81 4.17 3.51 2.86 4.45 3.93
Oxidizer 3.09 2.68 2.22 1.84 2.81 2.53
Fuel 1.72 1.49 1.29 1.02 1.64 1.40


  • At altitudes above 100,000 ft, the thrust is approximately 1154 lb and specific impulse is 238 lbf-sec/lbm for the NA-13   
    Image002

    Vernier Jet

    Imagesvst

    VSTOL diagram

    Abstract : Presented is a summary of test results from a program to develop the YLR101-NA-15 vernier engine. The program was completed in three phases: (1) Downrating the tank-fed thrust of the YLR101-NA-13 vernier from 830 pounds to 525 pounds, (2) modifying and repackaging the 525pound-thrust vernier into the YLR101-NA-15 configuration, and (3) developing a modified vernier injector to minimize a thrust chamber erosion problem which

    P1127-2

    Pegasus Engine diagram

    Figs 7 Engine gas flow

    Engine Gas Flow

    occurred at the 525-pound-thrust level.


Descriptors :   *LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES, *SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES, *VERNIER ROCKET ENGINES, TEMPERATURE, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCELERATION, CONTAINERS, SPECIFIC IMPULSE, CAPTIVE TESTS, FUEL INJECTION, MOVABLE ROCKET ENGINES, SUSTAINER ENGINES, JET MIXING FLOW, THRUST CHAMBERS, GIMBALS, FLUID FLOW, THRUST, FUEL INJECTORS, EROSION, CONFIGURATIONS, COMBUSTION CHAMBERS

2015-11-20 23.36.12

Light Speed

2015-11-20 23.38.25

Light Speed Drive

n the fictional Star Trek universe, the impulse drive is the method of propulsion that starships and other spacecraft use when they are travelling below the speed of light.[1] Typically powered by deuterium fusion reactors, impulse engines let ships travel interplanetary distances readily. For example, Starfleet Academy cadets use impulse
Vernier-engine-tca

vernier engines

Vernier Engine 1

vernier engine diagram

Vstol-1

VSTOL diagram

Sabre notes 1l

Saber Notes

Sabre-airflow 1024

Saber Airflow

Sabre-engine-17

Saber engines

WEB-EngineCUTAWAY.img assist custom-300x192

web engine

engines when flying from Earth to Saturn and back.[citation needed]

There are three practical challenges surrounding impulse drive design: acceleration, time dilation and energy conservation. In the show, inertial dampers compensate for acceleration. These hypothetical devices would have to be set so that the propellant retained its inertia after leaving the craft otherwise the drive would be ineffective.[2] Time dilation would become noticeable at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. Regarding energy conservation, the television series and books offer two explanations:

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