helicopter pod


helicopter gun pod


multi Mission pods


pylon Sensor Pod


rocket pods


rocket launcher pods European



M16 Schematic

M16 gun


rocket launcher


Front rocket pods launcher


chopper gun pod

XM157 Rocket Pod


XM158 Rocket Pod





APKWS European rocket launcher


rocket system

ORD APKWS Diagram Labeled lg


Raytheon Systems .Company (which was previously Hughes Missile Systems Company) BGM-71 A Basic Tube-launched Optically tracked Wire-guided (TOW) Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (ATGW) entered operational service with the US Army in 1970 for use from ground, vehicle and helicopter mounts.

It is fitted with Command to Line Of Sight guidance (CLOS) and all the gunner has to do is to keep the cross-hairs of his sight on the target until the missile impacts.

In 1976, production was switched from the BGM-71A round to the BGM-71 B extended-range basic TOW variant and then again in 1981 to the BGM-71C Improved TOW which has an enhanced copper lined warhead capable of defeating the Soviet armour technology that was being fielded at the time.

This involved the fitting of a 127 mm calibre warhead with a 26b mm long telescopic nose probe fuze system that pops out when the missile is in flight to provide the optimum standoff penetration capability to the missile's shaped charge. The second phase of the warhead improvement programme, the BGM-71 D TOW-2 missile, was introduced in 1983 with a heavier 152 mm calibre copper lined warhead, a 345 mm long telescopic nose probe, improved and countermeasures hardened digital guidance and a new propulsion system.

However, in order to defeat tanks fitted with Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA) blocks, the US Army started an upgrade programme in December 1984 and fielded the BGM-71 E TOW-2A variant in 1987. This has an improved direct attack warhead which incorporates a small shaped charge into the extendable nose probe of the TOW-2 to cause a premature explosion in any ERA block it hits so that the main copper lined warhead charge remains effective in penetrating the conventional

Creator of a Billion Light Years Away Ombudsman

armour plate behind. Additional ballast was added to the aft end of the missile to accommodate the extra weight of the new probe; a redesigned safe-and-arm device and an electronic timing device to provide the necessary delay between the tip and main charges were also added. Following initial development work started in 1987, it was announced in April

bell Huey Helicopter diagram

1988 that the now Raytheon Systems Company had been awarded a contract for full-scale development of the BGM-71 F TOW-2B ATGW. The contract, valued at US$35 million, was awarded to the now Raytheon Systems Company by the then US Army Missile Command. The missile entered service in 1991.

The TOW-2B (formerly the TOW lethality improvement programme) is a product improved variant with an Overflight Top Attack (OTA) capability. It is fitted with two downward sequentially fired Aerojet Electro Systems tantalum Explosive Formed Projectile (EFP) warheads and the Thomson-Thorn Missile Electronics dual-mode active optical laser profilometer and magnetic sensor fuzing device (see FITOW variant later) in a redesigned forebody ahead of the rocket motor unit.

The warheads are aligned in parallel so that they provide independent shot lines. An advanced guidance programme has been developed which is automatically initiated as the TOW-2B round leaves the launch tube. The gunner still places his cross-hairs on the target but the missile is now commanded to fly at a set height above the line of sight so that OTA can occur.

Under contract to Missile Command, the now Raytheon Systems Company has completed development of a wireless command link for the TOW ATGW. Successful firing trials of this version, known as TOW-2N, were carried out at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, in mid-1988. Instead of using fine steel wires that pay out from two bobbins in the back of a conventional TOW missile, guidance commands were sent from the launch station to the missile via a secure millimetre-wave datalink.

The test programme used TOW-2 missiles modified to include the millimetre-wave receiver, antenna and processor in place of the wires and bobbins. The TOW-2 launcher was modified with a millimetre-wave transmitter and antenna and an additional electronics card. The weight of the wireless hardware in the missile was less than that of the wires and bobbins. A production version would incorporate a larger rocket motor and would have a typical engagement range of 5,000 m. As of mid-1999, there were no plans for this version of TOW to enter production.

Under contract to the British Ministry of Defence Thomson-Thorn Missile Electronics has developed the UK Further-Improved TOW (FITOW) which uses a Thomson-Thorn Missile Electronics fuze and Royal Ordnance top attack warheads. This was developed for the Lynx helicopters of the Army Air Corps and has been retrofitted to existing missiles.

The FITOW variant uses a Thomson-Thorn Missile Electronics forebody with a dual-mode fuzing device. This comprises an active optical laser altimeter that measures the profile of the terrain being overflown and fires two near-vertically aligned shaped charge warheads into the top of the target when it detects the profile of a tank and the onboard magnetometer sensor confirms the presence of a large metallic mass (so as to prevent unwanted firings against decoys and so on). The target vehicle can be approached by the missile from any direction. Raytheon Systems Company has also modified the missile guidance loop so that FITOW flies above the gunner's line of sight in order to permit the OTA flight profile.

helicopter gunship diagram


helicopter gunship diagram

For fitting to 127 mm calibre warhead TOW variants, Israel Military Industries

Huey Cobra diagram

has developed a replacement tandem warhead unit that is specifically designed to defeat ERA-equipped tanks. A spring-loaded retractable probe is fitted which extends upon launch. It has a precursor PBX HE charge at its tip which is triggered at the optimum standoff distance by an active laser proximity fuze. This 'neutralises' the overlying protective ERA layer and allows the main protected warhead charge, comprising a precision shaped PBX HE charge and copper liner, to explode and penetrate the tank's actual armour plate located beneath.

TOW has seen extensive combat use in a number of conflicts including Angola, Chad, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Lebanon, the Iran-Iraq War, the Thai-Cambodian border skirmishes, the Thai-Laotian border skirmishes, the Vietnam War and the 1990-91 Gulf War.

In the latter conflict, a number of countries used the TOW system. The US Army/US Marine Corps alone shipped some 50,000 rounds into the theatre of operations, of which over 3,000 (primarily TOW-2 and TOW-2A) were fired at a wide variety of targets varying from T-72 MBTs to machine gun emplacements and individual snipers.

In the Battle of Khafji, counterattacking Saudi Arabian TOW gunners alone destroyed 46 armoured vehicles, whilst assisting US Marine Corps Cobra helicopters helped destroy a further 20 tanks and APCs.

Late in 1996, the now Raytheon Systems Company stated that there were over 15,000 TOW launchers (including helicopters) deployed in the world with current production models being the TOW-2A and TOW-2B. Total production has now passed 600,000 missiles and is scheduled to continue through the remainder of this century.

The TOW BLAAM (Bunkers Light Armour and Masonry) warhead has been developed to the prototype stage by Raytheon Systems Company and Aerojet and has been optimised to defeat targets behind concrete and masonary walls, and in bunkers, at extended ranges using existing TOW launchers. The warhead is retrofittable to existing TOW missiles with no changes required to the guidance system.

The US Army holds stock of TOW Improved TOW and TOW 2 for contingency and training only. TOW-2A and TOW-2B are now the only operational tactical rounds.

The Follow-On To TOW (FOTT) programme has been cancelled (Jane's Armour and Artillery Upgrades 1998-99 pages 81 to 82). As an interim solution a TOW Technology Insertion programme is now being studied which will be of the fire-and-forget type.


BGM-71A/B production complete. In service with Bahrain, Canada, Chad, Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Israel,.Italy, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway,. Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, UNITA movement, the UK, the USA and Yemen.

BGM-71C production essentially complete. In service with Botswana, Egypt, Finland (as M83), Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden (as Rb55), Thailand, Turkey, the UK and the USA.

BGM-71D in production. In service with Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland (licence-built), Thailand, Turkey and the USA.

BGM-71E in production. In service with the USA, Canada, Italy and several other countries.

BGM-71F in production. In service with Italy and the USA.

Armoured vehicle applications

Tracked Desert Warrior (two single-tube turret launchers - Kuwaiti Army)

Tracked M2/M2A1/M2A2 (twin-tube turret launcher - 3,682 delivered to US Army, 400 to Saudi Arabia) Being upgraded with improved Bradley Acquisition system (IBAS).

Tracked M3/M3A1 (twin-tube turret launcher - US Army)

Tracked M113 series (single-tube launcher - Danish, Egyptian, Greek, Israeli, Italian, Portuguese, Somali, Thai, Tunisian, Turkish and US armies)

Tracked M901 (twin-tube ITVturret launcher- Egyptian, Greek, Jordanian, Kuwaiti and Pakistani armies)

Tracked VCC-1 (twin-tube ITV turret launcher - Saudi Arabian Army)

Tracked Jaguar 2 (single-tube launcher- German Army)

Tracked YPR-765 PRAT (twin-tube ITV turret launcher-Royal Netherlands and Egyptian armies)

Tracked NM142 (twin-tube Kvaerner-Eureka turret launcher - Norwegian Army, this version is also in service with Canadian Forces on the M113A1 APC and with the

Turkish Army on modified Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle chassis)

Tracked Pvrbv551 (single-tube launcher-Swedish Army)

Tracked AIFV (single-tube launcher - Taiwanese Army)

Tracked M42 Mod (single-tube launcher - Taiwanese Army)

Tracked Wiesel Airportable Vehicle (single-tube launcher- German airborne troops)

8x8 LAV(AT) (twin-tube ITV turret launcher - Saudi Arabian National Guard and US Marine Corps)

6x6 MOWAG Piranha (twin-tube Kvaerner-Eureka turret launcher - Swiss Army)

4x4 RBY Mk-1 (single-tube launcher - Israeli Army)

4x4 LAV-150 (single-tube launcher - Saudi Arabian

National Guard and Taiwanese Army) 6 x 6 M8 Mod (single-tube launcher - Colombian Army).

Tracked Dardo Hitfist (on order for Italian Army) (one TOW launcher either side of turret)

Tracked BWP 2000 (one TOW launcher either side of turret -tested by Polish Army).

The BGM-71 TOW wire-guided heavy anti-tank missile is produced by Raytheon Systems Company. The weapon is used in anti-armour, anti-bunker, anti-fortification and anti-amphibious landing roles. TOW is in service with over 40 armed forces and is integrated on over 15,000 ground, vehicle and helicopter platforms worldwide.

TOW 2 missile system developmentEdit

The TOW missile system has been in service since 1970 with more than 650,000 missiles produced. Current production versions are: TOW 2A (BGM-71E), which entered production in 1987 with over 118,000 missiles delivered; TOW 2B (BGM-71F), which entered production in 1991 with over 40,000 missiles delivered and is designed to complement rather than replace TOW 2A; TOW 2B Aero; and TOW 2A bunker buster (BGM-71H).

A production contract for the new extended-range TOW 2B Aero was awarded by the US Army in February 2004. The contract was for 976 missiles, delivered by December 2006. A US Army contract for more than 2,700 TOW 2B and TOW 2B Aero missiles (including practice rounds) was placed in July 2004. TOW 2B Aero with ITAS has been selected for the US Marine Corps' next-generation AAWS-H (anti-armour weapon system-heavy) programme.

The TOW 2 missile system was deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, which constituted the first operational firing of the TOW 2B missile.

TOW 2 missile orders and deliveriesEdit

"TOW 2 is used in anti-armour, anti-bunker, anti-fortification and anti-amphibious landing roles."In August 2005, Kuwait requested the sale of 436 (292 TOW 2A, 144 TOW 2B) TOW missiles.

In September 2006, the US Army placed the first production contract, with five one-year options, for the new TOW 2B RF missile, a wireless version.

In October 2007, the US Congress was notified of the proposed sale of 2000 TOW 2A missiles to Pakistan and 2000 TOW 2A missiles to Israel.

In November 2007, Canada placed an order for 462 TOW 2A RF bunker buster missiles, the first export order for this missile variant.

In January 2008, Kuwait requested the sale of 2,106 TOW 2A RF and 1,404 TOW 2B RF missiles.

In September 2008, Egypt requested the sale of 6,900 TOW 2A missiles to replace its ageing inventory.

In July 2010, the US government placed a $55m contract with Raytheon to deliver TOW missiles to Saudi Arabia under a foreign military sales agreement.

Raytheon Technical Services received a $77.9m contract in March 2012 to deliver logistics and engineering support for subsystems and related equipment of the US Army TOW missiles.

In October 2012, Raytheon was awarded a $349m five-year contract to deliver 6,676 new wireless TOW missiles to the US military.

TOW 2 vehicle and air-mounted missile systemsEdit

The missiles can be fired from the ground using a tripod-mounted launch tube or installed on vehicles. The TOW missile system can be fitted as a single-tube pedestal mount on military vehicles or as two-tube or four-tube under-armour systems on vehicles such as the improved TOW vehicle M901, Desert Warrior, Piranha, US Marine Corps LAV, Dardo Hitfist and Bradley M2/M3.

Airborne TOW is in service in more than 13 countries. Over 2,100 units have been delivered and helicopters fitted with the TOW missile include the AgustaWestland Lynx, AgustaWestland A129, Bell Textron 206L, UH-1 Huey, Hughes 500MD helicopter, Eurocopter Bo 105 and Bell Textron AH-1 Cobra attack helicopter



M28 Weapons

M28 Minigun



XM-97 Turret

XM-97 Turret

739px-Diagram of the ShKAS feed system operation




Image thumb

Electronic chopper


helicopter electronics

Multirotor basic wiring hookup

Multirotor basic wiring hookup




helicopter instrument electronics


CH-60 diagram


APM connection

AAR Principles

AAR Principles


Chopper diagram


engine assembly helicopter


Parts of Sikorsky


helicopter engine

1412413862m SPLASH

Helicopter tube launchers


TOW missile launcher AH-1

Tow Launcher

helicopter TOW launcher

H-3E Diagram 2 copy

H3E diagram

H-5006404261 wm

chopper diagram


Kiowa diagram

Merlin Airframe Material

Merlin Airframe

TAT-102A Schematic

TAT-102A schematic


parts helicopter