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Browning 50 cal M2 Aircraft Mustang Attachments

Browning_50_cal_M2_Aircraft_Mustang_Attachments

M 41 riper cannon by bagera3005-d36oa8o

M-41 Riper Cannon




Browning m2 50 caliber modern by bagera3005-d3ch5ix

Browning M2.50 caliber

Browning M2 .50 caliber modern 


Caliber: .50BMG (12,7x99mm)

Weight:38 kg MG, 58 kg complete with M3 tripod
Length: 1650 mm
Length of barrel: 1140 mm
Feeding: belt
Rateof fire: 450-600 rounds/min

ANM2&HB

.50Cal aircraft gun

The development of a large-caliber heavy machine gun in USA was initiated in 1918, at the direct request of General Pershing, the commander of the US expeditionary corps in Europe. He requested a heavy gun capable of destroying military aircraft and ground targets such as tanks and armored cars. The task of developing such a gun and ammunition was passed to John Browning (then based at Colt’sfactory) and the Winchester Arms Co. respectively. The basic pattern of the new heavy machine gun was sealed in 1921. Officially adopted in 1923 as “machine gun, .50 calibre, M1921”, this water cooled, belt fed gun became the prime AA weapon for the infantry and the navy.

In the year 1930 US Army adopted a slightly modified .50caliber M1921A1 machine gun, and further work on this gun concentrated on the development of a universal weapon suitable for most roles. The key design changes were made by Dr. Samuel G. Green, who redesigned the basic receiver so it could be used in conjunction with either water-cooled or air-cooled barrels, encased in a water jacket or short perforated sleeve respectively. He also developed a switchable left or right side belt-feeding unit. The US Army adopted the new, improved fifty-caliber machine gun as the M2, in a water-cooled anti-aircraft version, an air-cooled ground mount version and as an aircraft weapon.Since the original air-cooled barrels were too light to provide any degree of sustained fire in ground applications, heavier barrels were soon introduced for the ground-mounted guns, so this weapon became the“M2 Heavy Barrel” or M2HB for short. In 1938 the barrel of the M2HB was lengthened to provide more striking energy and longer range, and in this form the M2HB was made in great numbers during the Second World War. US arms factories turned out a little less than 2 million M2 guns in all versions between 1941 and 1945, of which over 400,000 were made in M2HB configuration for ground use.

After theWW2, .50-caliber Browning guns found a wide acceptance across the world, and today are still widely used as ground and vehicle guns inmost of NATO countries and many others. Production of new M2HB guns is continued in USA and Belgium.

Browning M2HB machine gun is belt-fed, air-cooled machine weapon capable of semi-automatic and automatic fire. The M2HB fires from a closed bolt at all times, and uses a short-recoil operated action with a vertically sliding locking block, which rises up to lock the bolt to the barrel extension, and drops down on recoil to unlock the bolt from the barrel. It also has a bolt accelerator, made in the form of a lever located at the bottom of the receiver. Upon recoil, once the barrel is unlocked from the bolt, it strikes the accelerator, so the kinetic energy of the recoiling barrel is quickly transmitted to the bolt, improving the reliability of the weapon. Barrels are screwed into the barrel extension and are not quick-detachable on standard M2HB weapons;furthermore, once the barrel is installed in the weapon, the headspace must be adjusted prior to firing, or the weapon may fail to fire or produce a serious jam. However, quick change barrel (QCB) kits were developed by several companies during the 1970s and 1980s, and every M2HB weapon can be converted to a QCB version with the replacement of only a few parts, including the barrel. The rear part of the barrel is enclosed in a short, tubular, barrel jacket with cooling slots. The back of the receiver houses a bolt buffer, and additional buffer is used to soften the movement of the heavy barrel. On infantry guns, the cocking handle was invariably installed on the right side of the weapon, but slots were made on both sides of the receiver for tank installations which may require a left-side cocking handle.

Browning M2HB machine guns use a disintegrating steel belt, with the feed switchable from one side to the other through the re-installation of certain parts in the feed unit. The belt feed is of the two stage type– every cartridge is first withdrawn from the belt toward the rear by the pivoting extractor lever, attached to the bolt. Once the cartridge is clear of the belt, it is lowered into a T-slot cut into the bolt face, and pushed forward into the barrel. Spent cartridge cases are forced down the T-slot and out of the weapon through an opening at the bottom of the receiver by the following cartridges, or by the pivoting belt extractor lever (for the last cartridge case). A rotary switch is used to select the track for left or right side feed.

Since the gun fires from a closed bolt, it has a separate firing pin, powered by its own spring, and hosted inside thebolt along with the sear and cocking lever. Upon the recoil stroke of the bolt, the cocking lever pulls the firing pin back until it is engaged by the sear. Once the bolt is fully in battery (locked closed),a pull on the trigger raises the trigger bar so it acts on the sear and releases the firing pin. The standard firing controls consist of apush-type thumb trigger and sear release buttons located between the dual spade grips. Alternatively, an electric solenoid trigger can be installed for mounted vehicle applications. The M2HB has an un usual method of providing semi-automatic fire (probably added to the basic design as an afterthought) – it has a bolt latch, which locks the bolt to the bolt buffer in the open position after each shot.Therefore, if gun is fired in semi-automatic mode (single shots), for each shot the operator must first release the bolt forward by pressing the bolt latch release, located next to the thumb trigger (as the gunfires from a closed bolt). After the bolt is released and the gun is loaded, the operator may push the trigger to fire a single bullet. If the automatic mode is desired, the bolt latch must be turned off and locked by turning its lock to the left. In this position it will not engage the bolt and the gun will fire continuously as long as the trigger is pressed. It must be noted that original M2HB guns had no manual safeties; however, the recent M2E2 upgrade, developed by General Dynamics, includes, among other items, an additional manual safety located next to the trigger.

Standard sights consist of a folding blade front and frame-type rear. The rear sight is mounted on the receiver, the front sight is located at the front of the receiver and protected by an arc-shaped sight protector. Additionally, various types of telescopic and night sights can be installed using appropriate

Fig2-2

gun emplacement assembly

mountings.  



Browning M2 .50 caliber Ma Duce navy usaf aac ww2.

Browning m2 50 caliber ma duc by bagera3005-d3cdyrx

Browning M2.50 caliber MA DUCE

TECHNICAL DATA

M2HB

Country of Origin USA
Date Of Introduction 1938
Crew 1-4 (crew leader, gunner, assistant gunner, ammunition bearer)
Caliber 0.50 in (12.7 mm)
Cartridge .50 Caliber Browning (12.7 x 99 mm)
System of Operation Recoil
Cooling Air
Weight 84 lb (38.1 kg)
Length 65.13 in (1,654.3 mm)
Barrel Weight 24 lb (10.9 kg)
Barrel Length 45 in (1,143.0 mm)
Barrel Rifling R.H., eight grooves, pitch 1 in 15 inches (381 mm)
Basic Load (vehicle mount) 400 rounds
Ammunition Weight 100 rounds in ammo can: 35 lb (16 kg)
Performance
Rate of Fire Single shot
Sustained: Less than 40 rds/min, in bursts of five to seven rounds
Rapid: More than 40 rds/min, fired in bursts of five to sev

en rounds
Cyclic: 450-550 rds/min
Maximum Range 7,440 yd (6,800 m)
Maximum Effective Range Area Target: 2,000 yd (1,830 m)
Point Target (single shot): 1,640 yd (1,500 m)
M3 Tripod
Weight With T&E Mechanism and Pintle 44 lb (20 kg)
Height of M2 on Tripod 12 in (304 mm)
M63 Anti-aircraft Mount
Weight 144 lb (65 kg)
Height 42 in (1,067 mm)
Maximum Elevation 85°
Maximum Depression 29°
Maximum Traverse 360°
DESCRIPTION
The M2 .50 caliber machine gun is an automatic, belt-fed, recoil-operated, air-cooled, crew-operated machine gun. This gun may be mounted on ground mounts and most vehicles as an anti-personnel and anti-aircraft weapon. The gun is capable of single-shot (grou

nd version M2), as well as automatic fire and was used to a very limited degree as a sniper weapon during the Vietnam war. The weapon provides automatic weapon suppressive fire for offensive and defensive purposes. This weapon can be used effectively against personnel, light armored vehicles; low, slow flying aircraft; and small boats. The M2 machine gun uses the M3 Tripod. The principal night vision sight used with the M2 is the AN/TVS-5.

By repositioning some of the components, the M2 is capable of alternate feed. Ammunition can be fed into the weapon from the right or left side of the receiver; however the U.S. Army uses only left-hand feed.

FM 7-7: M2HB Picatinny website: M2HB
GROUND MOUNT - M3 TRIPOD MOUNT
FM 23-65: M3 tripod U.S. Army TACOM-RI SAG: M3 tripod
The M3 tripod is the standard ground mount of the M2 machine gun. It is a folding tripod with three, telescopic, tubular legs connected at the tripod head. Each leg ends in a metal shoe that can be stamped into the ground for greater stability. The two trail legs are jo

ined together by the traversing bar. The traversing bar serves as a support for the traversing and elevating mechanism, which in turn supports the rear of the gun. The tripod head furnishes a front support for the mounted gun that is further supported by the short front leg.

When the tripod is emplaced on flat terrain with all extensions closed, the adjustable front leg should form an angle of about 60° with the ground. This places the gun on a low mount about 12 inches (304 mm) above the ground. To raise the tripod farther off the ground, extend the telescopic front and trail legs enough to keep the tripod level and maintain the stability of the mount.

FM 23-65: T&E mechanism
The traversing and elevating (T&E) mechanism is used to engage preselected target areas at night or during limited visibility conditions. The T&E mechanism consists of a traversing handwheel, locking nut, scale, and yoke. The T&E mechanism is attached to the traversing bar of the M3 bipod.

Direction and elevation readings constitute the data necessary to engage preselected target areas during limited visibility. These readings are measured by and recorded from the traversing bar and the T&E mechanism. To obtain accurate readings, the T&E must be first zeroed with all measurements recorded in mils.
FM 23-65: pintle
The gun is connected to the M3 tripod mount by a pintle. This pintle is semipermanently attached to the machine gun by a pintle bolt through the front mounting hole in the receiver.

The tapered stem of the pintle seats in the tripod head. It is held secure by a pintle lock and spring. To release the pintle, raise the pintle lock, releasing the cam.
GROUND MOUNT - M63 ANTI-AIRCRAFT MOUNT

FM 23-65: M63 anti-aircraft mount
The M63 anti-aircraft mount is a four-legged, low silhouette, portable mount used for anti-aircraft fire. Its use against ground targets is limited because the mount tends to be unstable when the gun is fired at low angles.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - M36 TRUCK RING MOUNT
FM 23-65: M36 truck mount
This mount consists of a cradle with a roller carriage on a circular track. The cradle can be rotated in the pintle sleeve of the carriage and can be adjusted for elevation. The carriage is guided on the track by rollers. The track is secured to the vehicle by supports.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - M4, M24A2, M31C PEDESTAL MOUNTS
FM 23-65: M31C pedestal
Pedestal mounts are component assemblies designed for installation on the 1/4-ton vehicles to support a machine gun mount. They are composed of a pintle socket, pintle clamping screw column, and braces.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - MK64 GUN CRADLE MOUNT
FM 23-65: MK64 gun cradle
This vehicle mount was primarily designed for the M2. However, because of its versatility, the MK64 will accept the MK 19 also (using the M2 mounting adapter assembly). The MK64 can be mounted on the following vehicles: M151 series, M966 HMMWV armament carrier, and the M113 series.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - MK93 DUAL MOUNT
A dual purpose cradle mount that replaces the MK64 mount. Allows for quick and accurate traverse and elevation, further range (elevation) for the MK 19, recoil attention of the M2 machine gun and capability for range card preparation.
VARIANTS

M2HB, Flexible (NSN 1005-00-322-9715)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Flexible". Ground version of the M2HB. See data above.

Picatinny website: M2HB

M2HB, M48 Turret Type (NSN 1005-00-957-3893)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type". An air-cooled, recoil operated, alternate-feed, automatic, crew-served weapon mounted on the 

Abrams main battle tank commander's station.

U.S. Army website: M1A1 Abrams, Baghdad, Iraq

M2HB, Soft Mount (NSN 1005-01-343-0747)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount". A belt-fed, recoil operated, air-cooled, crew-served machine gun mounted on the U.S. Navy's MK 26 Mod 15, 16, and 17 gun mounts.

M2HB, Fixed Type (Right hand: NSN 1005-00-122-9339, Le

ft hand: NSN 1005-00-122-9368)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type Right Hand Feed", "Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type Left Hand Feed". Belt-fed, recoil operated, air-cooled, crew-served machine guns mounted on the U.S. Navy's MK 56 Mod 0 and 4 gun mounts. They are primarily fired by solenoid and requires a 24-28 Volts DC power source.

M2HB (Enhanced) .50 Caliber Machine Gun (E50)

The E50 machine gun kit adds new features and design improvements to the M2HB:


  • Closed bolt system with a manual trigger block safety: Allows movement of the weapon with a chambered round.

  • Fixed headspace and timing: Eliminates safety concerns based on exposure time associated with barrel changing.

  • Common barrel thread: Interchanges with existing HB barrels; eliminates logistics concerns during fielding; and simplifies conversion of existing barrels to the Quick Change Barrel (QCB) configuration.

  • Positive barrel engagement: Patented J-slot barrel retention system assures that the barrel is securely locked and aligned.

  • Flash hider: Reduces muzzle flash, making the M2 night-vision friendly.

  • Robust removable barrel handle: Simplifies hot-barrel changing.

  • Picatinny Optics rail: Quickly adaptable to existing sighting systems.

PEO Soldier website: E50 PEO Soldier website: E

50

PEO Soldier website: E50

850x370, 99K, JPEG

M2 Aircraft Gun

A .50 caliber M2 machine gun that is modified for use as an aircraft gun that can be fired remotely by the pilot or gunner of a helicopter or light fixed-wing aircraft. The M2 aircraft gun has a rate of fire of 750-850 rounds per minute. The M2 aircraft gun is classified Standard A.

U.S. Army TACOM-RI: M2 on CH-21 Shawnee

Experimental twin .50 gun mounts on CH-21 Shawnee.

M3 Aircraft Gun

The Browning M3 aircraft gun is a .50 caliber M2 machine gun modified for use as an aircraft gun that can be fired remotely by the pilot or gunner of a helicopter or light fixed-wing aircraft. The M3 machine gun has a rate of fire of 1150-1250 rounds per minute. The M3 aircraft gun is classified Standard A.

U.S. Army TACOM-RI: M3 in XM14 gun pod

M3 mounted in XM14 gun pod.

XM296 Machine Gun

The XM296 is a pod mounted, automatic, recoil-operated, link-belt fed, air-cooled machine gun used on the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior helicopter. The weapon has a maximum rate of fire from 750-800 rounds per minute. The XM296 machine gun functions in the same manner as the M2 machine gun, except it is fired remotely using an electrical solenoid and does not contain the bolt latch which allows for single-shot operation.

U.S. Army TACOM-RI: XM296

OPERATION

The cycle of functioning is broken down into basic steps: feeding, chambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking. Some of these steps may occur at the same time.

Cycle of functioning


  1. Feeding. Feeding is the act of placing a cartridge in the receiver, a

pproximately in back of the barrel, ready for chambering. When the bolt is fully forward and the top is closed, the ammunition belt is held in the feedway by the belt-holding pawl.






FM 23-65: feeding 1

As the bolt is moved to the rear, the belted ammunition is

moved over and then held in a stationary position by the belt-holding pawl. At the same time, the belt-feed pawl rides up and over the link, holding the first round in place. When the bolt is all the way to the rear, the belt-feed slide moves out far enough to allow the belt-feed pawl spring to force the pawl up between the first and second rounds.






FM 23-65: feeding 2

As the bolt moves forward, the belt-feed slide is moved back into the receiver, pulling with it the next linked cartridge. When the bolt reaches the fully forward position, the belt-holding pawl will snap into place behind the second linked cartridge, holding it in place. The extractor will then grasp the rim of the first cartridge, preparing to release it from the belt on the next re

arward motion.






FM 23-65: feeding 3

As the bolt then moves to the rear, the extractor will pull the cartridge with it, releasing it from the belt. As it moves to the rear, the extractor is forced down by the extractor cam, causing the cartridge to be moved into the T-slot in the bolt face, preparing the cartridge to be chambered. It is connected under the extractor switch on the side of the receiver until it is repositioned by the forward movement of the bolt, and pressure of the cover extractor spring forces it over the next round.


  1. Chambering. Chambering is placing the cartridge into the chamber of the weapon. During this cycle, the bolt moves forward, carrying the cartridge in the T-slot in a direct route to the chamber of the weapon. At the same time, the extractor rides up the extractor cam and when the bolt is fully forward, the extractor grasps the next linked cartridge

FM 23-65: chambering


  1. Locking. The bolt is locked to the barrel and barrel extension.

  2. Initially, the bolt is forced forward in counter-recoil by the energy stored in the driving spring assembly and the compressed buffer disks. At the start of counter-recoil, the barrel buffer body tube lock keeps the accelerator tips from bounding up too soon and catching in the breech lock recess in the bolt. After the bolt travels forward about 5 inches, the lower rear projecti

on of the bolt strikes the tips of the accelerator, turning the accelerator forward. This unlocks the barrel extension from the barrel buffer body group and releases the barrel buffer spring. The barrel buffer spring expands, forcing the piston rod forward.


  1. Since the cross groove in the piston rod engages the notch on the barrel extension shank, the barrel extension and barrel are also forced forward by the action of the barrel buffer spring. Some of the forward motion of the bolt is transmitted to the barrel extension through the accelerator. As the accelerator rotates forward, the front of the accelerator speeds up the barrel extension; at the same time, the accelerator tips slow down the bolt.

  2. Locking begins 1 1/8 inches before the recoiling groups (bolt, barrel extension, and barrel) are fully forward. The breech lock in the barrel extension rides up the breech lock cam in the bottom of the receiver into the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt, locking the recoiling groups together. The recoiling groups are completely locked together three-fourths of an inch before the groups are fully forward

FM 23-65: locking


  1. Firing. The firing pin is released, igniting the primer of the cartridge.

  2. As the trigger impressed down, it pivots on the trigger pin, so that the trigger cam on the inside of the backplate engages and raises the rear end of the trigger lever. This in turn pivots on the trigger lever pin assembly, causing the front end of the trigger lever to press down on the top of the sear stud. The sear is forced down until the hooked notch of the firing pin extension is disengaged from the sear notch. The firing pin and firing pin extension are driven fo

rward by the firing pin spring; the striker of the firing pin hits the primer of the cartridge, firing the round.


  1. For automatic firing, the bolt-latch release must be locked or held depressed, so that the bolt latch will not engage the notches in top of the bolt, holding the bolt to the rear as in single-shot firing. The trigger is pressed and held down. Each time the bolt travels forward in counter-recoil, the trigger lever depresses the sear, releasing the firing pin extension assembly and the firing pin. This automatically fires the next round when the forward movement of the recoiling groups is nearly completed. The gun should fire about one-sixteenth of an inch before the recoiling groups are fully forward. Only the first round should be fired with the parts fully forward. The gun fires automatically as long as the trigger and bolt latch are held down and ammunition is fed into the gun.

FM 23-65: firing FM 23-65: firing


  1. Unlocking. The bolt is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension.

  2. At the instant of firing, the bolt is locked to the barrel extension and against the rear end of the barrel by the breech lock, which is on top of the breech lock cam and in the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt. When the cartridge explodes, the bullet travels out of the barrel; the force of recoil drives the recoiling groups rearward. During the first three-fourths of an inch, the recoiling groups are locked together. As this movement takes place, the breech lock is moved off the breech lock cam stop, allowing the breech lock depressors (acting on the breech lock pin) to force the breech lock down, out of its recess from the bottom of the bolt. At the end of the first three-fourths of an inch of recoil, the bolt is unlocked, free to move to the rear independent of the barrel and barrel extension.

  3. As the recoiling groups move to the rear, the barrel extensio

n causes the tips of the accelerator to rotate rearward. The accelerator tips strike the lower rear projection of the bolt, accelerating the movement of the bolt to the rear. The barrel and barrel extension continue to travel to the rear an additional three-eighths of an inch, or an approximate total distance of 1 1/8 inches until they are stopped by the barrel buffer assembly.

FM 23-65: unlocking 1


  1. During the recoil of 1 1/8 inches, the barrel buffer spring is compressed by the barrel extension shank, since the notch on the shank is engaged in the cross groove in the piston rod head. The spring is locked in the compressed position by the claws of the accelerator, which engage the shoulders of the barrel extension shank. After its initial travel of three-fourths of an inch, the bolt travels an additional 6 3/8 inches to the rear, after it is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension, for a total of 7 1/8 inches. During this movement, the driving springs are compressed. The rearward movement of the bolt is stopped as the bolt strikes the buffer plate. Part of the recoil energy of the bolt is stored by the driving spring rod assembly, and part is absorbed by the buffer disks in the backplate.

FM 23-65: unlocking 2


  1. Extracting. The empty cartridge case is pulled from the ch

amber.


  1. The empty case, held by the T-slot, has been expanded by the force of the explosion; therefore, it fits snugly in the chamber. If the case is withdrawn from the chamber too rapidly, it may be torn. To prevent this, and to ensure slow initial extraction of the case, the top forward edge of the breech lock and the forward edge of the lock recess in the bolt are beveled. As the breech lock is unlocked, the initial movement of the bolt away from the barrel and barrel extension is gradual.

  2. The slope of the locking faces facilitates locking and unlocking and prevents sticking. The leverage of the accelerator tips on the bolt speeds extraction after it is started by kicking the bolt to the rear to extract the empty case from the chamber.

  3. Ejecting. The empty cartridge case is expelled from the receiver.

  4. As the bolt starts its forward movement (counter-recoil), the extractor lug rides below the extractor switch, forcing the extractor assembly farther down until the round is in the center of the T-slot of the bolt.

  5. The round, still gripped by the extractor, ejects the empty case from the T-slot. The last empty case of an ammunition belt is pushed out by the ejector.

  6. Cocking. The firing pin is withdrawn into the cocked position.

  7. When the recoiling groups are fully forward, the top of the cocking lever rests on the rear half of the V-slot in the top plate bracket. As the bolt moves to the rear, the top of the cocking lever is forced forward. The lower end pivots to the rear on the cocking lever pin. The rounded nose of the cocking lever, which fits through the slot in the firing pin extension, forces the extension to the rear, compressing the firing pin spring against the sear stop pin (accelerator stop). As the firing pin extension is pressed to the rear, the hooked notch of the extension rides over the sear notch, forcing the sear down. The sear spring forces the sear back up af

ter the hooked notch of the firing pin extension has entered the sear notch.


  1. The pressure of the sear and firing pin springs holds the two notches locked together. There is a slight overtravel of the firing pin extension in its movement to the rear to ensure proper engagement with the sear. As the bolt starts forward, the overtravel is taken up and completed when the cocking lever enters the V-slot of the top plate bracket, and is caromed toward the rear; pressure on the cocking lever is relieved as the bolt starts forward.

AMMUNITION
Ammunition is issued in a disintegrating metallic split-linked belt (M2 or M9 links). The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M2 machine gun is four API (M8) to one API-T (M20) with M9 link. Click here for more information.

M2 ammunition is packaged in a metal box containing 100 linked rounds. Each box of 100 rounds weighs approximately 35 pounds (16 kg).
FM 23-65: loading


  • M1 High Pressure Test.

  • M1, M10, M17, M21 Tracer.

  • M1, M23 Incendiary.

  • M1A1 Blank.

  • M2 Dummy.

  • M2, M33 Ball.

  • M2 Armor-Piercing (AP).

  • M8 Armor-Piercing Incendiary (API).

  • M20 Armor-Piercing Incendiary Tracer (API-T).

  • M903 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP). Lined barrel only.

  • M962 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator Tracer (SLAP-T). Lined barrel only.

FIRING POSITIONS
The tripod firing positions are prone, sitting, and standing. They are assumed in the following manner:

FM 23-65: sitting


  1. The prone position is used when firing from the tripod that is set in a low position. It is assumed by lying on the ground directly behind the gun. The gunner then spreads his legs a comfortable distance apart with his toes turned outward. His left elbow rests on the ground, and his left hand grasps the elevating handwheel of the T&E. His right hand lightly grasps the right spade grip with his right thumb in a position to press the trigger. The position of his body can then be adjusted to position his firing eye in alignment with the sights of the weapon.

FM 23-65: prone


  1. The sitting position can be used when the tripod is set in a high or low position. The gunner sits directly behind the gun between the legs of the tripod. He may extend his legs under the tripod or cross them, depending on his physique. The gunner then places both elbows on the inside of his thighs to get the best support. He grasps the elevating handwheel of the T&E with the left hand, and lightly grasps the right spade grip with his right hand. He must ensure that the right thumb is in position to press the trigger

  2. The standing position is used when the gunner is firing from a fighting position. This position is assumed by standing directly behind the gun with the feet spread a comfortable distance apart. The gunner grasps the elevating handwheel of the T&E with the left hand. He lightly grasps the right spade grip with the right hand, ensuring that the right thumb is in a position to press the trigger. Adjustment of the body is allowed in order to align the firing eye with the sights on the weapon

FM 23-65: standing

The vehicular firing position for the M2 is standing. It is assumed by constructing a solid platform to stand on, using sandbags or ammunition boxes; or, in the case of the M113 APC, using the commander's seat. The gunner must then ensure that his platform is high enough to place the spade grips of the gun about chest high. He grasps the spade grips with both hands and places both thumbs in a position to press the trigger. The gunner holds the gun tightly to his chest for stabilization; his elbows should be locked tightly to his sides. He sights over the weapon and adjusts his position by flexing his knees and leaning forward to absorb any recoil.
FM 23-65: standing
The anti-aircraft firing position uses a standing position when firing from the M63 mount. To assume the position, the gunner stands with his feet spread comfortably apart with his shoulders squarely behind the gun. When the gunner is engaging aerial targets, he grasps the upp

er extension handles with both hands. When engaging low-level aircraft or ground targets, he grasps the lower extension handles with both hands.

The kneeling position may be used; it has the advantage of presenting a lower profile of the gunner and also aligns the gunner's eye closer to the axis of the barrel.
FM 23-65: anti-aircraft firing position
WEAPON CAPABILITIES
FM 7-7: M2HB
In the urban environment, the M2 machine gun provides high-volume, long-range, automatic fires for the suppression or destruction of targets. The M2 provides final protective fire along fixed lines and can be used to penetrate light structures. Tracers are likely to start fires.

The M2 machine gun is often employed on its vehicular mount during both offensive and defensive operations. If necessary, it can be mounted on the M3 tripod for use in the ground role or in the upper levels of buildings. When mounted on a tripod, the M2 machine gun can be used as an accurate, long-range weapon and can supplement sniper fires.

When shooting at ground targets from a stationary position, the gun is fired in bursts of 9 to 15 rounds. When firing at aircraft, a continuous burst is used rather than several short bursts. When firing on the move, long bursts of fire are walked into the target. Enemy ATGM gunners, lightly-armored vehicles, and troops can be suppressed with a heavy volume of fire until a force can destroy or bypass the opposition.


Browning M2 .50 caliber Ma Duce navy usaf aac ww2.
M2 50 caliber ma duce navy by bagera3005-d3cfrrh

Browning M2.50 Caliber MA DUCE Navy



TECHNICAL DATA

M2HB

Country of Origin USA
Date Of Introduction 1938
Crew 1-4 (crew leader, gunner, assistant gunner, ammunition bearer)
Caliber 0.50 in (12.7 mm)
Cartridge .50 Caliber Browning (12.7 x 99 mm)
System of Operation Recoil
Cooling Air
Weight 84 lb (38.1 kg)
Length 65.13 in (1,654.3 mm)
Barrel Weight 24 lb (10.9 kg)
Barrel Length 45 in (1,143.0 mm)
Barrel Rifling R.H., eight grooves, pitch 1 in 15 inches (381 mm)
Basic Load (vehicle mount) 400 rounds
Ammunition Weight 100 rounds in ammo can: 35 lb (16 kg)
Performance
Rate of Fire Single shot
Sustained: Less than 40 rds/min, in bursts of five to seven rounds
Rapid: More than 40 rds/min, fired in bursts of five to seven rounds
Cyclic: 450-550 rds/min
Maximum Range 7,440 yd (6,800 m)
Maximum Effective Range Area Target: 2,000 yd (1,830 m)
Point Target (single shot): 1,640 yd (1,500 m)
M3 Tripod
Weight With T&E Mechanism and Pintle 44 lb (20 kg)
Height of M2 on Tripod 12 in (304 mm)
M63 Anti-aircraft Mount
Weight 144 lb (65 kg)
Height 42 in (1,067 mm)
Maximum Elevation 85°
Maximum Depression 29°
Maximum Traverse 360°
DESCRIPTION
The M2 .50 caliber machine gun is an automatic, belt-fed, recoil-operated, air-cooled, crew-operated machine gun. This gun may be mounted on ground mounts and most vehicles as an anti-personnel and anti-aircraft weapon. The gun is capable of single-shot (ground version M2), as well as automatic fire and was used to a very limited degree as a sniper weapon during the Vietnam war. The weapon provides automatic weapon suppressive fire for offensive and defensive purposes. This weapon can be used effectively against personnel, light armored vehicles; low, slow flying aircraft; and small boats. The M2 machine gun uses the M3 Tripod. The principal night vision sight used with the M2 is the AN/TVS-5.

By repositioning some of the components, the M2 is capable of alternate feed. Ammunition can be fed into the weapon from the right or left side of the receiver; however the U.S. Army uses only left-hand feed.

FM 7-7: M2HB Picatinny website: M2HB
GROUND MOUNT - M3 TRIPOD MOUNT
FM 23-65: M3 tripod U.S. Army TACOM-RI SAG: M3 tripod
The M3 tripod is the standard ground mount of the M2 machine gun. It is a folding tripod with three, telescopic, tubular legs connected at the tripod head. Each leg ends in a metal shoe that can be stamped into the ground for greater stability. The two trail legs are joined together by the traversing bar. The traversing bar serves as a support for the traversing and elevating mechanism, which in turn supports the rear of the gun. The tripod head furnishes a front support for the mounted gun that is further supported by the short front leg.

When the tripod is emplaced on flat terrain with all extensions closed, the adjustable front leg should form an angle of about 60° with the ground. This places the gun on a low mount about 12 inches (304 mm) above the ground. To raise the tripod farther off the ground, extend the telescopic front and trail legs enough to keep the tripod level and maintain the stability of the mount.

FM 23-65: T&E mechanism
The traversing and elevating (T&E) mechanism is used to engage preselected target areas at night or during limited visibility conditions. The T&E mechanism consists of a traversing handwheel, locking nut, scale, and yoke. The T&E mechanism is attached to the traversing bar of the M3 bipod.

Direction and elevation readings constitute the data necessary to engage preselected target areas during limited visibility. These readings are measured by and recorded from the traversing bar and the T&E mechanism. To obtain accurate readings, the T&E must be first zeroed with all measurements recorded in mils.
FM 23-65: pintle
The gun is connected to the M3 tripod mount by a pintle. This pintle is semipermanently attached to the machine gun by a pintle bolt through the front mounting hole in the receiver. The tapered stem of the pintle seats in the tripod head. It is held secure by a pintle lock and spring. To release the pintle, raise the pintle lock, releasing the cam.
GROUND MOUNT - M63 ANTI-AIRCRAFT MOUNT
FM 23-65: M63 anti-aircraft mount
The M63 anti-aircraft mount is a four-legged, low silhouette, portable mount used for anti-aircraft fire. Its use against ground targets is limited because the mount tends to be unstable when the gun is fired at low angles.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - M36 TRUCK RING MOUNT
FM 23-65: M36 truck mount
This mount consists of a cradle with a roller carriage on a circular track. The cradle can be rotated in the pintle sleeve of the carriage and can be adjusted for elevation. The carriage is guided on the track by rollers. The track is secured to the vehicle by supports.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - M4, M24A2, M31C PEDESTAL MOUNTS
FM 23-65: M31C pedestal
Pedestal mounts are component assemblies designed for installation on the 1/4-ton vehicles to support a machine gun mount. They are composed of a pintle socket, pintle clamping screw column, and braces.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - MK64 GUN CRADLE MOUNT
FM 23-65: MK64 gun cradle
This vehicle mount was primarily designed for the M2. However, because of its versatility, the MK64 will accept the MK 19 also (using the M2 mounting adapter assembly). The MK64 can be mounted on the following vehicles: M151 series, M966 HMMWV armament carrier, and the M113 series.
VEHICULAR MOUNT - MK93 DUAL MOUNT
A dual purpose cradle mount that replaces the MK64 mount. Allows for quick and accurate traverse and elevation, further range (elevation) for the MK 19, recoil attention of the M2 machine gun and capability for range card preparation.
VARIANTS

M2HB, Flexible (NSN 1005-00-322-9715)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Flexible". Ground version of the M2HB. See data above.

Picatinny website: M2HB

M2HB, M48 Turret Type (NSN 1005-00-957-3893)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type". An air-cooled, recoil operated, alternate-feed, automatic, crew-served weapon mounted on the Abrams main battle tank commander's station.

U.S. Army website: M1A1 Abrams, Baghdad, Iraq

M2HB, Soft Mount (NSN 1005-01-343-0747)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount". A belt-fed, recoil operated, air-cooled, crew-served machine gun mounted on the U.S. Navy's MK 26 Mod 15, 16, and 17 gun mounts.

M2HB, Fixed Type (Right hand: NSN 1005-00-122-9339, Left hand: NSN 1005-00-122-9368)

"Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type Right Hand Feed", "Machine Gun, Cal .50, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type Left Hand Feed". Belt-fed, recoil operated, air-cooled, crew-served machine guns mounted on the U.S. Navy's MK 56 Mod 0 and 4 gun mounts. They are primarily fired by solenoid and requires a 24-28 Volts DC power source.

M2HB (Enhanced) .50 Caliber Machine Gun (E50)

The E50 machine gun kit adds new features and design improvements to the M2HB:


  • Closed bolt system with a manual trigger block safety: Allows movement of the weapon with a chambered round.

  • Fixed headspace and timing: Eliminates safety concerns based on exposure time associated with barrel changing.

  • Common barrel thread: Interchanges with existing HB barrels; eliminates logistics concerns during fielding; and simplifies conversion of existing barrels to the Quick Change Barrel (QCB) configuration.

  • Positive barrel engagement: Patented J-slot barrel retention system assures that the barrel is securely locked and aligned.

  • Flash hider: Reduces muzzle flash, making the M2 night-vision friendly.

  • Robust removable barrel handle: Simplifies hot-barrel changing.

  • Picatinny Optics rail: Quickly adaptable to existing sighting systems.

PEO Soldier website: E50 PEO Soldier website: E50

PEO Soldier website: E50

850x370, 99K, JPEG

M2 Aircraft Gun

A .50 caliber M2 machine gun that is modified for use as an aircraft gun that can be fired remotely by the pilot or gunner of a helicopter or light fixed-wing aircraft. The M2 aircraft gun has a rate of fire of 750-850 rounds per minute. The M2 aircraft gun is classified Standard A.

U.S. Army TACOM-RI: M2 on CH-21 Shawnee

Experimental twin .50 gun mounts on CH-21 Shawnee.

M3 Aircraft Gun

The Browning M3 aircraft gun is a .50 caliber M2 machine gun modified for use as an aircraft gun that can be fired remotely by the pilot or gunner of a helicopter or light fixed-wing aircraft. The M3 machine gun has a rate of fire of 1150-1250 rounds per minute. The M3 aircraft gun is classified Standard A.

U.S. Army TACOM-RI: M3 in XM14 gun pod

M3 mounted in XM14 gun pod.

XM296 Machine Gun

The XM296 is a pod mounted, automatic, recoil-operated, link-belt fed, air-cooled machine gun used on the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior helicopter. The weapon has a maximum rate of fire from 750-800 rounds per minute. The XM296 machine gun functions in the same manner as the M2 machine gun, except it is fired remotely using an electrical solenoid and does not contain the bolt latch which allows for single-shot operation.

U.S. Army TACOM-RI: XM296

OPERATION
The cycle of functioning is broken down into basic steps: feeding, chambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking. Some of these steps may occur at the same time.

Cycle of functioning


  1. Feeding. Feeding is the act of placing a cartridge in the receiver, approximately in back of the barrel, ready for chambering. When the bolt is fully forward and the top is closed, the ammunition belt is held in the feedway by the belt-holding pawl.





FM 23-65: feeding 1

As the bolt is moved to the rear, the belted ammunition is moved over and then held in a stationary position by the belt-holding pawl. At the same time, the belt-feed pawl rides up and over the link, holding the first round in place. When the bolt is all the way to the rear, the belt-feed slide moves out far enough to allow the belt-feed pawl spring to force the pawl up between the first and second rounds.






FM 23-65: feeding 2

As the bolt moves forward, the belt-feed slide is moved back into the receiver, pulling with it the next linked cartridge. When the bolt reaches the fully forward position, the belt-holding pawl will snap into place behind the second linked cartridge, holding it in place. The extractor will then grasp the rim of the first cartridge, preparing to release it from the belt on the next rearward motion.






FM 23-65: feeding 3

As the bolt then moves to the rear, the extractor will pull the cartridge with it, releasing it from the belt. As it moves to the rear, the extractor is forced down by the extractor cam, causing the cartridge to be moved into the T-slot in the bolt face, preparing the cartridge to be chambered. It is connected under the extractor switch on the side of the receiver until it is repositioned by the forward movement of the bolt, and pressure of the cover extractor spring forces it over the next round.


  1. Chambering. Chambering is placing the cartridge into the chamber of the weapon. During this cycle, the bolt moves forward, carrying the cartridge in the T-slot in a direct route to the chamber of the weapon. At the same time, the extractor rides up the extractor cam and when the bolt is fully forward, the extractor grasps the next linked cartridge

FM 23-65: chambering


  1. Locking. The bolt is locked to the barrel and barrel extension.

  2. Initially, the bolt is forced forward in counter-recoil by the energy stored in the driving spring assembly and the compressed buffer disks. At the start of counter-recoil, the barrel buffer body tube lock keeps the accelerator tips from bounding up too soon and catching in the breech lock recess in the bolt. After the bolt travels forward about 5 inches, the lower rear projection of the bolt strikes the tips of the accelerator, turning the accelerator forward. This unlocks the barrel extension from the barrel buffer body group and releases the barrel buffer spring. The barrel buffer spring expands, forcing the piston rod forward.

  3. Since the cross groove in the piston rod engages the notch on the barrel extension shank, the barrel extension and barrel are also forced forward by the action of the barrel buffer spring. Some of the forward motion of the bolt is transmitted to the barrel extension through the accelerator. As the accelerator rotates forward, the front of the accelerator speeds up the barrel extension; at the same time, the accelerator tips slow down the bolt.

  4. Locking begins 1 1/8 inches before the recoiling groups (bolt, barrel extension, and barrel) are fully forward. The breech lock in the barrel extension rides up the breech lock cam in the bottom of the receiver into the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt, locking the recoiling groups together. The recoiling groups are completely locked together three-fourths of an inch before the groups are fully forward

FM 23-65: locking


  1. Firing. The firing pin is released, igniting the primer of the cartridge.

  2. As the trigger impressed down, it pivots on the trigger pin, so that the trigger cam on the inside of the backplate engages and raises the rear end of the trigger lever. This in turn pivots on the trigger lever pin assembly, causing the front end of the trigger lever to press down on the top of the sear stud. The sear is forced down until the hooked notch of the firing pin extension is disengaged from the sear notch. The firing pin and firing pin extension are driven forward by the firing pin spring; the striker of the firing pin hits the primer of the cartridge, firing the round.

  3. For automatic firing, the bolt-latch release must be locked or held depressed, so that the bolt latch will not engage the notches in top of the bolt, holding the bolt to the rear as in single-shot firing. The trigger is pressed and held down. Each time the bolt travels forward in counter-recoil, the trigger lever depresses the sear, releasing the firing pin extension assembly and the firing pin. This automatically fires the next round when the forward movement of the recoiling groups is nearly completed. The gun should fire about one-sixteenth of an inch before the recoiling groups are fully forward. Only the first round should be fired with the parts fully forward. The gun fires automatically as long as the trigger and bolt latch are held down and ammunition is fed into the gun.

FM 23-65: firing FM 23-65: firing


  1. Unlocking. The bolt is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension.

  2. At the instant of firing, the bolt is locked to the barrel extension and against the rear end of the barrel by the breech lock, which is on top of the breech lock cam and in the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt. When the cartridge explodes, the bullet travels out of the barrel; the force of recoil drives the recoiling groups rearward. During the first three-fourths of an inch, the recoiling groups are locked together. As this movement takes place, the breech lock is moved off the breech lock cam stop, allowing the breech lock depressors (acting on the breech lock pin) to force the breech lock down, out of its recess from the bottom of the bolt. At the end of the first three-fourths of an inch of recoil, the bolt is unlocked, free to move to the rear independent of the barrel and barrel extension.

  3. As the recoiling groups move to the rear, the barrel extension causes the tips of the accelerator to rotate rearward. The accelerator tips strike the lower rear projection of the bolt, accelerating the movement of the bolt to the rear. The barrel and barrel extension continue to travel to the rear an additional three-eighths of an inch, or an approximate total distance of 1 1/8 inches until they are stopped by the barrel buffer assembly.

FM 23-65: unlocking 1


  1. During the recoil of 1 1/8 inches, the barrel buffer spring is compressed by the barrel extension shank, since the notch on the shank is engaged in the cross groove in the piston rod head. The spring is locked in the compressed position by the claws of the accelerator, which engage the shoulders of the barrel extension shank. After its initial travel of three-fourths of an inch, the bolt travels an additional 6 3/8 inches to the rear, after it is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension, for a total of 7 1/8 inches. During this movement, the driving springs are compressed. The rearward movement of the bolt is stopped as the bolt strikes the buffer plate. Part of the recoil energy of the bolt is stored by the driving spring rod assembly, and part is absorbed by the buffer disks in the backplate.

FM 23-65: unlocking 2


  1. Extracting. The empty cartridge case is pulled from the chamber.

  2. The empty case, held by the T-slot, has been expanded by the force of the explosion; therefore, it fits snugly in the chamber. If the case is withdrawn from the chamber too rapidly, it may be torn. To prevent this, and to ensure slow initial extraction of the case, the top forward edge of the breech lock and the forward edge of the lock recess in the bolt are beveled. As the breech lock is unlocked, the initial movement of the bolt away from the barrel and barrel extension is gradual.

  3. The slope of the locking faces facilitates locking and unlocking and prevents sticking. The leverage of the accelerator tips on the bolt speeds extraction after it is started by kicking the bolt to the rear to extract the empty case from the chamber.

  4. Ejecting. The empty cartridge case is expelled from the receiver.

  5. As the bolt starts its forward movement (counter-recoil), the extractor lug rides below the extractor switch, forcing the extractor assembly farther down until the round is in the center of the T-slot of the bolt.

  6. The round, still gripped by the extractor, ejects the empty case from the T-slot. The last empty case of an ammunition belt is pushed out by the ejector.

  7. Cocking. The firing pin is withdrawn into the cocked position.

  8. When the recoiling groups are fully forward, the top of the cocking lever rests on the rear half of the V-slot in the top plate bracket. As the bolt moves to the rear, the top of the cocking lever is forced forward. The lower end pivots to the rear on the cocking lever pin. The rounded nose of the cocking lever, which fits through the slot in the firing pin extension, forces the extension to the rear, compressing the firing pin spring against the sear stop pin (accelerator stop). As the firing pin extension is pressed to the rear, the hooked notch of the extension rides over the sear notch, forcing the sear down. The sear spring forces the sear back up after the hooked notch of the firing pin extension has entered the sear notch.

  9. The pressure of the sear and firing pin springs holds the two notches locked together. There is a slight overtravel of the firing pin extension in its movement to the rear to ensure proper engagement with the sear. As the bolt starts forward, the overtravel is taken up and completed when the cocking lever enters the V-slot of the top plate bracket, and is caromed toward the rear; pressure on the cocking lever is relieved as the bolt starts forward.

AMMUNITION
Ammunition is issued in a disintegrating metallic split-linked belt (M2 or M9 links). The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M2 machine gun is four API (M8) to one API-T (M20) with M9 link. Click here for more information.

M2 ammunition is packaged in a metal box containing 100 linked rounds. Each box of 100 rounds weighs approximately 35 pounds (16 kg).
FM 23-65: loading


  • M1 High Pressure Test.

  • M1, M10, M17, M21 Tracer.

  • M1, M23 Incendiary.

  • M1A1 Blank.

  • M2 Dummy.

  • M2, M33 Ball.

  • M2 Armor-Piercing (AP).

  • M8 Armor-Piercing Incendiary (API).

  • M20 Armor-Piercing Incendiary Tracer (API-T).

  • M903 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP). Lined barrel only.

  • M962 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator Tracer (SLAP-T). Lined barrel only.

FIRING POSITIONS
The tripod firing positions are prone, sitting, and standing. They are assumed in the following manner:


  1. The prone position is used when firing from the tripod that is set in a low position. It is assumed by lying on the ground directly behind the gun. The gunner then spreads his legs a comfortable distance apart with his toes turned outward. His left elbow rests on the ground, and his left hand grasps the elevating handwheel of the T&E. His right hand lightly grasps the right spade grip with his right thumb in a position to press the trigger. The position of his body can then be adjusted to position his firing eye in alignment with the sights of the weapon.

FM 23-65: prone


  1. The sitting position can be used when the tripod is set in a high or low position. The gunner sits directly behind the gun between the legs of the tripod. He may extend his legs under the tripod or cross them, depending on his physique. The gunner then places both elbows on the inside of his thighs to get the best support. He grasps the elevating handwheel of the T&E with the left hand, and lightly grasps the right spade grip with his right hand. He must ensure that the right thumb is in position to press the trigger

FM 23-65: sitting


  1. The standing position is used when the gunner is firing from a fighting position. This position is assumed by standing directly behind the gun with the feet spread a comfortable distance apart. The gunner grasps the elevating handwheel of the T&E with the left hand. He lightly grasps the right spade grip with the right hand, ensuring that the right thumb is in a position to press the trigger. Adjustment of the body is allowed in order to align the firing eye with the sights on the weapon

FM 23-65: standing

The vehicular firing position for the M2 is standing. It is assumed by constructing a solid platform to stand on, using sandbags or ammunition boxes; or, in the case of the M113 APC, using the commander's seat. The gunner must then ensure that his platform is high enough to place the spade grips of the gun about chest high. He grasps the spade grips with both hands and places both thumbs in a position to press the trigger. The gunner holds the gun tightly to his chest for stabilization; his elbows should be locked tightly to his sides. He sights over the weapon and adjusts his position by flexing his knees and leaning forward to absorb any recoil.
FM 23-65: standing
The anti-aircraft firing position uses a standing position when firing from the M63 mount. To assume the position, the gunner stands with his feet spread comfortably apart with his shoulders squarely behind the gun. When the gunner is engaging aerial targets, he grasps the upper extension handles with both hands. When engaging low-level aircraft or ground targets, he grasps the lower extension handles with both hands.

The kneeling position may be used; it has the advantage of presenting a lower profile of the gunner and also aligns the gunner's eye closer to the axis of the barrel.
FM 23-65: anti-aircraft firing position
WEAPON CAPABILITIES
FM 7-7: M2HB
In the urban environment, the M2 machine gun provides high-volume, long-range, automatic fires for the suppression or destruction of targets. The M2 provides final protective fire along fixed lines and can be used to penetrate light structures. Tracers are likely to start fires.

The M2 machine gun is often employed on its vehicular mount during both offensive and defensive operations. If necessary, it can be mounted on the M3 tripod for use in the ground role or in the upper levels of buildings. When mounted on a tripod, the M2 machine gun can be used as an accurate, long-range weapon and can supplement sniper fires.

When shooting at ground targets from a stationary position, the gun is fired in bursts of 9 to 15 rounds. When firing at aircraft, a continuous burst is used rather than several short bursts. When firing on the move, long bursts of fire are walked into the target. Enemy ATGM gunners, lightly-armored vehicles, and troops can be suppressed with a heavy volume of fire until a force can destroy or bypass the opposition.   


General Electric (now General Dynamics) GAU-12 Equalizer 25mm Gatling Gun



GAU 12 Equalizer 1 by Venom800TT

GAU-12 Equalizer



The GAU-12 25MM six-barrel gun pod can be mounted on the centerline of the Marine Corp's AV-8 Harrier. It has a 300 round capacity with a lead computing optical sight system (LCOSS) gunsight. The Marines use a 25mm depleted uranium [DU] round in the GAU-12 Gatling gun on AV-8 Harriers.

The Air Force Special Operations Command AC-130U Spectre gunship gunship represents a major-advancement over the two previous generation gunships, the AC-130A and the AC-130H. Changes include enhancement and expansion of its attack sensor suite allowing the aircraft's electro-optic sensors and the All Light Level Television and Infrared Detection System to provide a full 360-degree field of vision; an APG-180 Strike Radar that will allow tracking of both fixed and moving targets through adverse weather; an adjustable GAU-12 25 mm Gatling gun and a Dual Target Attack mode which will allow the AC-130U to strike two targets simultaneously. Alliant Techsystems, Incorporated, Hopkins, Minnesota, manufactures rounds of 25 millimeter high explosive incendiary ammunition applicable to the G

AU-12 autogun on the AC-130U aircraft.

In October 1983 the US Army Air Defense Board completed an evaluation of the US Army Armament Research and Development Center (ARDC) air defense gun/missile experiment known as ADGILE. The prototype of the hybrid system consisted of a 25mm GAU-12/U cannon and an engineering ATAS STINGER launcher. The experiment clearly demonstrated the feasibility of an integrated STINGER/gun hybrid system. In February 1985 The USMC evaluated their Light Armored Vehicle-Air Defense System at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), Florida, using a 25mm GAU-12 cannon and an ATAS launcher.

The LAV-AD light armor vehicle air-defense variant features the Blazer turret, which includes a forward-looking infrared targeting sight, a laser rangefinder, and the option of employing either Stinger missiles or the rapid-fire GAU-12/U 25mm Gatling gun. Its primary mission is to provide low altitude air defense at ranges within the envelope of the Stinger Missiles and the 25mm ammunition. A secondary mission is to provide ground defense against light armored mechanized forces.

Index

M-61 Gun

The M61A1 utilized by the F-14 and F/A-18 aircraft is a hydraulically driven, 6 barreled, rotary action, air cooled, electrically fired weapon, with selectable rates of fire of either 4000 or 6000 rounds per minute. The M61A2 20mm light weight gun is utilized in the F/A-18 aircraft only. The gun system is mated to a linkless ammunition storage and handling system. The F-14 has a capacity of 676 rounds while the F/A-18 has a capacity of 578 rounds of 20mm linkless M-50 or PGU series electrically primed ammunition. World War II fighters and bombers were commonly equipped with Browning M2 heavy barrel .50 cal. machine guns which had a maximum firing rate of 1,200 spm. The Gatling gun had exceeded that rate of fire in 1880. In 1946, U.S. Army Ordnance Research and Development Service engineers dusted-off the old Gatling principle and adapted it to create the 6,000 spm M61 series Vulcan 20mm Gatling gun. The Gatling principle permitted a high rate of fire while reducing heat and barrel erosion.

In June 1946, the General Electric Company was awarded the contract for "Project Vulcan". In 1950, GE delivered ten initial model A .60 cal. T45 guns for evaluation. Thirty-three model C T45 guns were delivered in 1952 in three calibers: .60 cal., 20mm, and 27mm, for additional testing. After extensive testing, the T171 20mm gun was selected for further development. In 1956 the T171 20mm gun was standardized by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force as the M61 20mm Vulcan aircraft gun.

The M61 20mm Vulcan is an externally powered, six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate of fire of up to 7200 spm. The firing rate is selectible at 4,000 spm or 6,000 spm. The gun fires standard electrically primed 20mm ammunition. The M61A1 is hydraulically or ram-air driven, electrically controlled, and uses a linkless ammunition feed system. Each of the gun's six barrels fires only once during each revolution of the barrel cluster. The six rotating barrels contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. The gun's rate of fire, essentially 100 rounds per second, gives the pilot a shot density that will enable a "kill" when fired in one-second bursts. The M61 20mm cannon is a proven gun, having been the US military's close-in weapon of choice dating back to the 1950s. The F-104, F-105, later models of the F-106, F-111, F-4, B-58, all used the M61, as does the Air Force's F-15 , F-16 and F-22, and the Navy's F-14 and F/A-18. The internally mounted 20mm cannon system is common to all versions of the F-15. This system combines the widely used (F-4, F-16, F-18) M61 cannon with 940 rounds (A through D models) or 500 rounds (E model) of ammunition. The cannon can be loaded with target practice, armor piercing, or high explosive incendiary rounds. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range (less than 2000 feet) air-to-air environment, where more sophistacated air-to-air missiles are ineffective. Alternately, the cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role.

The M61A2 is a lightweight version of the M61A1. Most of the weight savings was achieved by machining down the barrel thickness.
F-111C-AUP-JDAM

F-111 UP JDAM

F-111 internal weapons carriage

F-111 Internal Weapons carriage

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